Saturday, March 14, 2020
Importances of Effective Communication Essay Example Importances of Effective Communication Essay Importances of Effective Communication Essay pTHE IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTIVE COMMINUCATION DEFINATION:- 1)Communication is a Process by which some thoughts, fleeings ideas (i. e. information) are Conveyed by One Individual to another Individual or by One Individual to a Group or by One group to another group In such a manner that there is Reception, Understanding, and Feedback. Petter Little 2)Ã¢â¬Å"Human Communication is sending Meaningful Messages from one Person to AnotherÃ¢â¬ Denis Mc Quail Introduction to Communication:- Communication is an essential part of Human Interaction. The benefits of effective communication are many and obvious as they enhance all aspects of our personal and professional lives. Ineffective or misunderstood communications in our personal lives may give rise to problems. IMP OF COMMUNICATION IN OUR TO DAY PERSONAL/SOCIAL LIFE:- A)Communication is a personal Asset. B)It is very usefull and essential in every walk of life. C)In spite of computers and other modern machine of communication. The ability to communicate effectively is a valueable skill. If we use communication properly. D)It will be a blessing. E)Communication will make our life happy and meaningful. However, if we donÃ¢â¬â¢t use communication carefully then A)It will become a curse, and B)Make our life Miserable. IMPORTANT TERMS USED IN THE PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION:- Although used in a slightly different context, a phrase from some British propaganda during WWII neatly sums up the dangers of ineffective communications: Ã¢â¬ËCareless talk costs livesÃ¢â¬â¢. That may be over-dramatic in most cases where communications between seafarers or between ship and shore go awry but it does illustrate the importance of effective communications and the real dangers if they go badly wrong. A)There are 2 stages and 5 factors of communication. B)Communication Cycle, C)Communication Situation, and D)Communication Gap. Stages are of types i. e. Sender and Receiver. The Factors for Sender are proper channel, Message Encoding. And The Factors for Receiver are Decoding Feedback. Conclusion Effective communications are an essential ingredient to safe and efficient ship operations. Communication can be achieved in many ways but the prime method for operational communications is through speech.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Management Innovation and New Technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words
Management Innovation and New Technology - Essay Example However, modern theories are moving away from this inventor mythology to more holistic approaches that are often based on complete processes and this has led to successful commercialization of new products and processes. An individual can confidently state that product innovation is a complex process rather than a one-day event. This means that there is a lot that is involved in product innovation. A number of insights are evident in the product innovation complexity. To begin with innovation starts and ends with invention (Wield & Rhode, 82). Invention refers to the discovery of new and intelligent ideas and artefacts. Despite the fact, that creating new idea is the baseline of innovation, it is noteworthy that the idea must be sorted out as to whether it is workable and or applicable into the societal context. In other words, innovation takes into consideration adapting the newly found ideas into practical productive application in particular work processes or product markets of a particular firm. The applications should not only be to specific firms but also to the entire economy and into the society. This proposition can be justified by the fact that despite Spencer Silvers discovering the Post-it brand adhesive before 1970 this noble invention was only commercialised in 1978 after the company (3M) had ignored for that long owing to lack of practical applicability (Ketteringham & Nayak 427). SilverÃ¢â¬â¢s moment of discovering the Post-it brand adhesive began in 3MÃ¢â¬â¢s Central Research Laboratories under program dubbed Ã¢â¬Å"Polymers for AdhesivesÃ¢â¬ in 1964. It is unfortunate that despite the fact that silver came up with unique form of adhesive his new idea could not be taken seriously by the management because Silver could not find a problem to apply this great idea. It was until Arthur Fry a 3M chemist, a choir director and an amateur mechanic found a problem to SilverÃ¢â¬â¢s idea when he came up with the paper to paper application of the adhesive. According to Wield & Rhode (84), the complexity of product innovation can be understood by withdrawing the assumption that innovation takes a Ã¢â¬Å"linear flowÃ¢â¬ . It is noteworthy that successful innovation has no straight line considering that it does not spring from scientific invention all the way to develop a competitive edge. The nature of the link between a scientific invention and the technological development is in itself very complex and because of this reason, the link has often been confusing. Individuals need to understand that scientific invention benefits a lot from technological development in a number of ways that include but not limited to transfer of knowledge, network of profession, skills and instruments. In the case of 3M, it is evident that the company boasts of a poll of skilled scientists that range from chemists and engineers who worked tirelessly in 3MÃ¢â¬â¢s Central Research Laboratories to come up with new inventions. The idea that led i nto development of one of the best selling product of 3M named Post-it Note Pad resulted from a series of technological developments that took approximately 10 years (Ketteringham & Nayak 425). Successful product innovation is also a matter of interaction between a number of factors within and outside the organization (Wield & Rhode, 84). Studies indicate that those factors that key determinant to the commercial success of a product are found outside the areas which are commonly associated with the with the
Monday, February 10, 2020
Risk Management in the Jinjiang International Hotel in China - Case Study Example According to Ehrbar (1998) management of organizational risk is presented with three outcomes. The first one is the intolerable situation which means that the source of the risk has to be abandoned or in cases where the source was technology then it can be replaced. If the risk is a natural hazard then vulnerabilities are reduced. The second outcome is intolerable situations. This shows that risks are to be handled within the limits of practical resource investments. This can be conducted either by corporate risk managers or regulatory agencies. The third outcome is that of acceptable situations. This can only be applied where the risks are small or negligible. This study shows the tools and techniques used in the management of risks and the implementation of the mechanism in both theory and practical examples.In order to control and evaluate risks, certain objectives are identified, these include; one, identifying the risk in time. The second objective is viewing the likelihood of t he risk and the financial impact on the business. The third is allocating resources available for control in order of priorities and later setting clear control objectives. Thompson (2002) shows fraud occurs in many ways depending on the authority granted in Hotels. Hotels are fixed cost and therefore and therefore implementing loss controls measures maximizes cash flows. In order to avoid an occurrence of risks in hotels, the following method should be followed. First one needs to identify and assess the threats involved as well as the vulnerability of critical assets to specific threats (Kotler 1998). Ways of reducing these risks should be identified and the measures based on strategies should be prioritized According to Cannon (1999) the principles of risk management should; create value by improving the organisational position. They should also be part of decision making and act as an integral part of the organisational processes. The principles should also aim at addressing uncertainty through systematic and structured ways basing on the best available information. They should be tailored in order to take account of the human factors. Ã Higuera and Haimes (1996) describe that a good risk plan for managing risk should contain a schedule to control implementation and responsible persons to be appointed for the actions. This paper studies The Jinjiang International Hotel in China that deals with restaurant services, fitness center, internet access, parking, and room service. The five-star deluxe hotels mostly target both tourists and locals living around. It offers an ideal location at the center of WuhanÃ¢â¬â¢s Central Business District. The size of the business is quite large as it can accommodate about 1000 guests per night. It plans to improve its quality in order to bring it to the standards that the guests expect. It is located 30 minutes from the International Airport and 5 minutes from the railway station thus making it a good choice for both businessmen and leisure travelers. The hotel offers leisure, business and meeting standpoints with a destination restaurant, a hot spot bar, and a retail store. The company provides employment to about 400 people.
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Roots of Mccarthyism in the Late 40s and Early 50s Essay Though the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA) peaked with itÃ¢â¬â¢s highest number of members in 1940-1941, with 750,000 members, by this area in time it was looked down upon. It had, earlier in the decade, been a successful agent against fascism and a huge help in the advancement and creation of labor unions, and for that reason people were joining it. However, many people were becoming communists unknowingly just by attending meetings where they were given free food (a big draw to people in an era directly following the Great Depression). In the late 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s and early 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s were very scared that communism would influence our country. This period of time was referred to as Ã¢â¬Ëthe second red scareÃ¢â¬â¢. Americans had seen the way that Russia had been transformed by communism, and did not want their country to undergo the same changes. Communism was a scary concept at the time, and it was something that we as a country definitely did not want any part of. In the late 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s, an organization was formed called the House Un-American Activities Community. This community made up of members of the United States House of Representatives, was formed in order to protect Americans against communism influence and was responsible for investigating any allegations that were made about communist activity. Despite this groups efforts the United States was still in heightened fear of Communist overtaking or the possibility of becoming a nation similar to that of RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s. Senator Joseph McCarthy was a US senator from Wisconsin during this time period. He served for ten years, from 1947 until his death in 1957. He is most well-known for being particularly paranoid of communist efforts, regularly accusing people of communist behavior when none existed. He accused large amounts of people, mostly government workers, claiming that they were Soviet spies and communist sympathizers. By 1950, the term Ã¢â¬ËMcCarthyismÃ¢â¬â¢ was coined. The term refers to the practice of accusing people of treason, disloyalty, and other related things with no grounds and little or no evidence. The term is still used today and generally refers to political corruption, in which an important political leader makes false accusations about a certain group of people. A few events took place in 1949 and 1950 that spurred McCarthyism and the second red scare to occur. First, the Soviet Union (a very communist-dominated country) tested an atomic bomb in 1949. This was much earlier than Americans had expected them to come out with this technology. At this point, we realized that communist countries were more advanced than we had prior thought. In 1950, the Korean War broke out. The United States, along with the UN and South Korea, battled against communist countries, furthering our hatred and fear towards them. In the meantime, many cases of soviet spies came out. More and more Ã¢â¬ËAmericansÃ¢â¬â¢ were found to actually be spies from Russia and the Soviet Union. As the increase of found spies became more prevalent, people continued to point fingers and adopt an accusatory towards many government officials and become abnormally suspicious. Senator McCarthy made a list of all of the people who he claimed had been involved in communist behavior. This list was called the Black List, and was made up of many writers, artists, government officials, and other people important to society. On February 9, 1950, McCarthy gave a public speech revealing the people on the list. He claimed that 205 people were on this list, but later reduced it to just 57. Though some of the people on the list were in fact engaged in communist behavior, others were simply engaging in lifestyles that McCarthy himself had biases against and lumped into the list. Some of these behaviors included sexual deviance, alcoholism, and political decisions not aligned with McCarthyÃ¢â¬â¢s own. After being found to be on McCarthyÃ¢â¬â¢s list, the accused were brought to trial and vigorously questioned. The only way that mercy would be shown to them, regardless of guilt or innocence, was to accuse other people. This led to more and more people being accused and convicted unrightfully and unnecessarily. The effect of these trials was detrimental to people in many professions in the public eye. Many entertainers lost their jobs as a result of the public degradation. President Dwight Eisenhower decided to take a stand against McCarthyism when the senator began bringing military men into the accusatory trials. McCarthy publically announced that many members of the United States Army were personally involved in communist activity. Eisenhower was very involved in the military, a graduate of West Point himself, and when McCarthy took steps to slander the Secretary of the Army, he felt that it was the final straw and that steps needed to be taken to stop the epidemic. Also, in bringing in the military to his slanderous accusations, it was at this point that McCarthy lost much of his hype and once popular power. Involving army journalists, Eisenhower ran a story exploiting some of the hidden agendas of McCarthy in December of 1953. In March of 1954, upon EisenhowerÃ¢â¬â¢s instructions, vice president Richard Nixon gave a speech indirectly chastising McCarthy. He said, Men who have in the past done effective work exposing Communists in this country have, by reckless talk and questionable methods, made themselves the issue rather than the cause they believe in so deeply,Ã¢â¬ (Spartacus). Following the presidential lead, many leaders in the press began to fight against McCarthyism. People who had wanted to speak out for a long time but had been too afraid were now gaining confidence to do so and momentum was building. Eventually, McCarthy lost the chairmanship of the Government Committee on Operations of the Senate. Some feel that this marked the end of McCarthyism, and consequently AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s hysterical fear of communism infiltrating the country. However, others feel that this response did not happen as a result of McCarthyÃ¢â¬â¢s demotion, and not until the close of the Cold War. While most support was against McCarthyism in this era, there were few supporters and supporting groups of this institution and its suspicious allegations. Many of these supporters came in the form of women only anti-communist groups. Examples of these groups were Minute Women of the USA and American Public Relations Forum. Another group, which was not only for women, was the American Legion. They were well known veteran supporters who also showed much interest in the spread of McCarthyism. While these groups made up a large part of the supporters of the McCarthy sequence, the largest amount of help came in the form of the far-right radicals. They generally opposed international relations, specifically the United Nations, and were even against many of the social welfare programs. Particularly those thought out by the new deal, many of these McCarthyism supporters had a general opposition to programs that fought to reduce Ã¢â¬Å"the inequalities to the social structure of the United States.Ã¢â¬
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Cuba and the United States The island of Cuba has been a focal point of American foreign policy since the acquisition of Florida in the late 1800's. Cuba continues to capture America's attention as it is the only existing communist state in the Western Hemisphere. U.S. policy has attempted to topple the communist regime in Cuba since its outset in 1961. Policies designed to incite revolution, destroy the Cuban economy, and starve the Cuban people seem to be at odds with American ideals of democracy and sovereignty. It is, in fact, the very policies that the United States has implemented that have strengthened and prolonged Fidel Castro's reign in Cuba. The relationship between the United States and Cuba is paradoxical in that its very basis is anti-democratic. The United States never has supported the right of the Cuban people to govern themselves and now it has adopted a position of attempting to force on Cuba the political ideals it deems safe. This examination hopes to explain the background of that relationship and the state in which it now exists. Foreign policy in Cuba is fascinating in that it is a story unlike any other in U.S. history. The ability of one small island to dominate the foreign policy concerns of a world power is certainly an subject for inquiry. Obsession with the island of Cuba itself is nothing new in the United States. For the last thirty years, the small island just 92 miles off the coast of Florida, has shaped American foreign policy. Cuba's geographical location and political structure place it at odds with the United States on all fronts. The close proximity of Cuba to the United States coast places it in the limelight of national security concerns. The map provides a clear ... ...e Secretary General of the United Nations. 20 September 1995. MacGaffey, Wyatt. Twentieth Century Cuba: t he Background of the Castro Revolution. New York: Anchor Books, 1965. Manach, Jorge. Marti: Apostle of Freedom. New York: Devin-Adair, 1950. Matthews, Herbert. The Cuban Story. New York: Harcourt, 1961. Matthews, Herbert. Fidel Castro. New York: Harcourt, 1969. Matthews, Herbert. The Fruits of Fascism. New York: Harcourt, 1943. Mills, C. Wright. Listen, Yankee. New York: Ballantine Books, 1961. Myers, Steven. "Clinton Clears Media to Open in Cuba." New York Times, 13 February 1997. A6. Oppenheimer, Albert. Castro's Final Hour. New York: Macmillan, 1992. Oppenheimer, Albert. "Incresingly, Castro Loses Touch With Cuba." The Miami Herald. 28 July 1992, A12. Phillips, Ruby. The Cuban Dilema. New York
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
PRACTICUM REPORT ON THE ADMINISTRATIVE ROLES, FUNCTIONS AND STRUCTURES OF THE KADUNA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT EDUCATION AUTHORITY, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION A practicum is a practical field of study which students studying Educational Administration and Planning must carry out as a partial requirement for the fulfillment of the award of Bachelor Degree in Educational Administration and Planning. The students who offer Educational Administration and Planning as their course of study are expected to within the period of their programme to be attached to any of the educational organizations so as to provide the students an opportunity to acquire practical knowledge on the administration of an educational organization, observing the functions of the educational administrators and planners, the structures and functions of the educational organization and the overall responsibility of its administration. 1.1 THE ROLES OF THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT EDUCATION AUTHORITY The roles of the local government education authority are concerned with the overall aspects of the primary education. This is further prescribed in the federal republic of Nigeria official Gazette (1988) establishing the then National Primary Education Commission which some provisions were upheld by the present Universal Basic Education Commission as follows; i. The day-to-day administration of primary schools within the Local Government Area; ii. Making recommendation on promotion and discipline of both teaching and non-teaching staff on GL. 07 and above to the state universal basic education board, iii. The appointment, posting, transfer, promotion and discipline of both teaching and non-teaching staff within the range of grade level 01-06; iv. Payment of salaries, allowances and other benefits to both teaching and non-teaching staff; v. Submission of detailed annual estimates, accounts, and monthly returns to the state Universal Basic Education Board; vi. Acquisition and distribution of materials and equipment to primary schools; vii. Understanding capital projects and general maintenance of primary school buildings and its infrastructure; viii. Arousing, promoting and encouraging communal participation in the running of primary schools in the Local Government Area; ix. Taking all reasonable and polite steps to ensure full enrollment and attendance in all primary schools within theÃ area; x. Payment for any land acquired for the purpose of educational development; xi. Supervising the district education committees within the local government area; xii. Intimating on regular basis feedback to the state universal basic education board on public reaction to government education measures within the area; and xiii. Rendering a detailed annual report to the State Universal Basic Education Board on the activities of the Local Government Education Authority during the preceding year, especially on instructional activities. Read more:Ã Human Resource Roles and Responsibilities 1.2 THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY This practicum report is restricted to the administrative roles, functions and structures of various departments in operational in the Kaduna North Local Government Education Authority. This study will attempt to seek the method of decision making, communication channel and how discipline is maintained in the Kaduna North Local Government Education Authority. 1.3 THE LOCATION AND BRIEF HISTORY OF THE KADUNA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY The Kaduna North Local Government Education Authority is located along Abubakar Kigo and Nassarawa Roads respectively. At the Northern and Southern parts it bounded by Igabi and Kaduna south local government areas respectively. It is being housed on a storey building that contains twenty-four (24) offices. The Kaduna North Local Government Education Authority originated from the ancient educational tradition. The emirs and chiefs assisted by another community leaders at their respective domains were the sole authority responsible for appointing within the community credible personalities to give or train the children of the community and to report back to the emirs and chiefs. This system of administration was restructured to Native Authority at the advent of the colonial administration where Kaduna Metropolis was placed under the administrative jurisdiction of the Zaria Native Authority with the component unit responsible for grassroots education existing alongside as being one of the social services which the Native Authority was responsible for providing to the community. The Native Authority System of administration was in operational when the need to reform it was conceived. It was subsequently declared and reformed as the third tier of Government known as LocalÃ Government Council with the unit responsible for primary education proclaimed a department. The history of the Local Government Education Department, Kaduna North will not be complete without being related to the mother Local Government Council as it serves as the sole source of funding and administrative discipline for the education department though, some of these functions were removed at the promulgation of Decree No. 31 establishing the National Primary Education Commission by the Federal Military Government as supported by the Federal Republic of Nigeria official Gazette of 17th August 1988 respectively. In spite of the overhauling and the reformation in the education sector that brought the Universal Basic Education Authority was still maintained. The Kaduna North Local Government Education Authority was created in 1991 by the Federal Military Government with the Administrative mandate to occupy the Headquarters of the then Local Government Education Authority, Kaduna. This was necessary as the Headquarters was located within the administrative of the Kaduna North Local Government Education Authority. CHAPTER TWO 2.0 STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS OFKADUNA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT EDUCATION AUTHORITY The Kaduna North Local Government Education Authority is consisting of six (6) departmental head with the educational secretary coordinating the activities of these departments which are mentioned below; i. Department of Human Resource Management ii. Department of Finance and Accounts iii. Department of Planning, Research and Statistics iv. Department of school services v. Department of social mobilization and knowledge management vi. Department of quality assurance The administrative structure of the Kaduna North Local Government Education Authority is shown below; i. The Education secretary ii. The Departmental heads of the various departments iii. The Units head iv. The Other subordinates staff 2.1 THE FUNCTIONS OF THE VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS OF THE VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS OF THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY The hierarchy of the Local Government Education Authority, Kaduna North provides that the education secretary is the chief administrative and accounting officer who is responsible for coordinating the functions of the various departments of the local government education authority. THE DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT This department performs such duties as; i. Recruitment of teaching and non-teaching staff on grade level 01-06; ii. Deployment and transfer of both teaching and non-teaching staff on grade level 01-06; iii. Preparation of pensions list of retirees and intended retirees iv. Administering promotion advancement confirmations and discipline of staff within the range of grade level 01-06; v. Developing the personnel emolument budget for inclusion in the main budget of the Local Government Education Authority; vi. Developing and maintaining establishment workforce plan; vii. Developing job descriptions and schedule for the local Government Education Authority; viii. Reviewing responsibilities, duties and staffing needs including departmental functions; ix. Reviewing staffing levels and submit recommendations of such review to the state universal basic education board; x. Deployment of teachers to schools based on needs; xi. Preparing departmental reports to the state universal basic education board; xii. Preparing unit work plans and budget xiii. Developing and maintaining human resources policies. xiv. Establishing training needs or requirements and developing training plan for both teaching and non-teaching staff including induction programmes. xv. Recommending teaching and non-teaching staff for training and retraining. xvi. Identifying liaising with training service providers xvii. Maintaining training records xviii. Maintaining both confidential and open records. THE DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE AND ACCOUNTS This department performs related functions such as:- i. Preparing payrolls and making payment of salaries, allowances and other benefits to both teaching and non-teaching staff; ii. Maintaining account and other financial records; iii. Making all payments from the LGEA accounts; iv. Collaborate to prepare annual budgets and estimates; v. Coordinating and controlling loans and advances; vi. Preparing monthly, quarterly and annual financial reports; vii. Preparing annual financial statements and ensuring they are ready for auditing; viii. Providing financial advice to the LGEA ix. Collaborating with the social mobilization and knowledge management to provide the LGEA stakeholder with financial update; x. Liaising with the local government council on financial matters; xi. Endorsing computed retirement benefits; xii. Maintaining records of all contributory pension issues; xiii. Collecting from SUBEB and distributing pay slip; xiv. Receiving funds from SUBEB and disbursing same on behalf of the LGEA; xv. Rendering financial returns to the state Universal Basic Education Board; xvi. Maintaining bank accounts; xvii. Maintaining store; xviii. Maintaining assets register; xix. Preparing bank reconciliation. THE DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING RESEARCH AND STATISTICS This department undertakes such related functions as:- i. Propose frameworks for the departmental work plan and implementation plans by departments; ii. Coordinating the development harmonizing the LGEA plans medium term strategic sector, department annual work plan and performance targets etc; iii. Coordinating the development and harmonizing the LGEA budgeting process; iv. Identifying schools to be constructed and renovated after due consolation with the department of school services; v. Rendering annual reports to the state universal Basic Education Board and local Government Council; vi. Preparing unit work plans and budgets; vii. Ensuring that individual work plans are developed, implemented andÃ monitored regularly; viii. Ensuring the availability and functioning of education management information system; ix. Supporting the ministry and the state universal basic education board in the designing of annual school census and other survey questionnaires for both primary and junior secondary schools levels; x. Supporting the administration and conduct of surveys. THE DEPARTMENT OF SCHOOL SERVICES This department performs the following functions:- i. Establishment of early childhood care and development centers and overseeing the implementation of the curriculum meant for it; ii. Identifying and sharing staff needs with the human resources; iii. Identifying instructional materials need including textbooks and communicate to the education secretary and the universal basic education board; iv. Recommending to state universal basic education board the mode of instructional materials distribution based on school needs; v. compiling and forwarding school development needs to the department of planning research and statistics and other relevant units; vi. Recommending materials to be purchased such as textbooks and other instructional materials ; vii. Distributing both textbooks and other instructional materials to the schools and monitoring the usage of same viii. Overseeing library services in both primary junior secondary schools; ix. Coordinating the administration of exams for both primary and junior secondary schools x. Overseeing continuous assessment and ensure up to date class assessment records; xi. Coordinating curricular activities such as sports, health, clubs etc; xii. Providing counseling and guidance services to both primary and junior secondary schools; xiii. Maintaining records of pupils transiting to junior secondary school; xiv. Overseeing the provision of education for disabled children through facilitating integration of disabled pupils into regular schools; xv. Liaising with the state Universal Basic Education Board to provide education for children in nomadic communities; xvi. Coordinating school improvement initiatives; THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL MOBILIZATION AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT This department is responsible for the under listed duties/functions i. Developing strategies for community participation and mobilization; ii. Constructing alliance within the community, civil society non-governmental organizations etc to support educational development; iii. Ensuring the establishment and support of the ongoing school Based Management Committees within the schools; iv. Developing and implementing strategies for community mobilization, advocacy and integration at local Government Area, wards and community; v. Ensuring that community participates in the implementation of the Universal Basic Education Programs in local Government Areas; vi. Promoting enrolment, attendance , retention and completion of girls education and out of school children; vii. Monitoring and advising on the implementation of self-help projects; viii. Working with communities to promote access and equity; ix. Through advocacy, sensitization, mobilization create platform for community enlightenments or awareness and participation in local Government Education Authority activities x. Facilitating community supports for schools xi. Strengthening communication between the State Universal Basic Education Board, Local Government Education Authority, Ward, Community and schools; xii. Producing materials for the LGA such as bulletin board etc; xiii. Ensuring adequate implementation of self-help project at the beneficiary schools. THE QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT The functions of this department are highlighted underneath i. Coordinating all quality assurance activities at the LGEA; ii. Establishing the LGEA works plans and schedules for the evaluation of primary schools and feed back to zonal offices; iii. Coordinating training and re-training of primary evaluation officers; iv. Creating conducive systems for monitoring the quality of the whole school evaluation and the evaluators and ensure implementation of follow up activities; v. Establishing a system for dealing with poor performing schools; vi. Setting an annual target based on the priorities of the LGEA; vii. Preparing an annual detailed report covering the activities of the LGEA; viii. Evaluating and re-accrediting primary schools within the LGEA at least once in three (3) years; ix. Ensuring that the LGEA Evaluators follow standards and bench marks for evaluation of schools; x. Providing feedback to schools onÃ evaluation reports; xi. Producing instruments for school evaluation; xii. Preparing work plans and budget for the unit; xiii. Creating and maintaining database of all evaluation documents. 2.2 THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE KADUNA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT EDUCATION AUTHORITY Figure 1: Present the organizational structure of the Kaduna North Local Government Education Authority CHAPTER THREE 3.0 THE METHODOLOGY OF DECISION MAKING According to Fred C. Lunenburg and Allan C. Ornstien (2008) sees decision making as Ã¢â¬Å"the process of choosing from among alternativesÃ¢â¬ . Therefore, decision making is generally the thinking that follows alternative solutions aimed at arriving at the eventual remedy that is called decision making. The ability of an organization to function effectively depending solely on the type of leader it has. This is also the same with the functioning of organizations which depend on the kind of decisions made concerning it. This assertion is true because whatever plans of action an organization takes is the product of a decision. Whether such a decision proves effective for the organization or ineffective depends on how reasonable and relevant such a decision was. Consequently, decision making in an organization as it affects the Kaduna North Local Government Education Authority will be briefly examined with a view to ascertaining how sound decisions can be arrived at and who should be involved in the decision making. 3.1 THE MODE OF MAKING DECISION The Local Government Education Authority, Kaduna North takes decisions on issues that affect it collectively involving the principal officers drawn from various departments and sections. 3.2 DECISION MAKING MODEL The universally acceptable decision making adopted by the LGEA involves variety of steps through which it is hoped that individual will be enabledÃ to arrive at more reasonable decisions. i. Determining the problem and its scope: This is concern with identifying of the problem for which a decision is sought. It is critically thought over in order to fully understand and then defined and the actual limit of the problem known; ii. Analysis and Evaluation: The individual perceives the problem wholistically and decides whether or not a decision will be made to solve the problem. If it is irrelevant then the idea of a decision is therefore dropped; iii. Formulating alternative solutions: This explains that when individual has agreed to make a decision on the problem. He then develops alternative solution to the problem he intends to solve; iv. Determining workability of proposed alternatives: this assists in determining the possible effects after having compared the formulated alternatives with a view to helping the individual to have an idea of the best alternative to take; v. Selecting one alternative: this is the selecting of alternative which presents more favorable related consequences to unfavorable ones as the probable decision; vi. Test-out: This is the putting into practical action the alternative solution chosen on the basis of trial; vii. Evaluation of alternatives: This is the assessment of consequences arising during the trial period of the selected alternative. If the consequences are found to be positive and sound, the alternative then becomes the decision. CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 COMMUNICATION According to A. Owan Enoh, Becky B. Bamanja and Roy O. J. Onuwuka (1987) define communication as a process of Ã¢â¬Ëdisseminating information from and to every member of such an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢. It is generally, viewed and as a system of linking the individual, the group and the organization. 4.1 CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION The most common used channels of communication in the Kaduna north local government education authority involves the following i. Ideating: The development of an idea, message, or information to transit/disseminate to the subordinates to the members of the community; ii. Encoding: This is the idea that the sender intends to convey or transmit to the individual andÃ even the public. Symbols such as words. Non-verbal cues or picture and even diagrams are designed to disseminate messages; iii. Transmitting: This segment of communication channels takes place as soon as the message is developed. This includes several methods such as memoranda, circular, telephone, board policy or management policy statement and face-face communication. iv. Receiving: This channel requires that the receiver should be a good listener to the oral message. In other words, if the message is written, the receiver must be attentive to its specified and implied meaning. v. Decoding: This is referring to the translation of an already received message into a perceived or interpreted meaning. The ability of the receiver is to take transmitted messages and give meaning to them. vi. Acting: this is the last communication channels. it involves putting into action or practice the information so far conveyed or disseminated for the positive improvement of an organization. 4.2 COMMUNICATION PROCESS Direction of communication There are basically two (2) ways of communication flow or direction viz; downward and upward systems but the one that is commonly in used in the Kaduna North Local Government Education Authority which is the downward communication will be briefly discussed below; Downward communication is referred to the communication pattern in an organization where directives are issued from a higher point of administrative function to a lower one. This could further be illustrated as when the education secretary gives directives to the departmental heads of the Kaduna North Local Government Education Authority who are as well accountable to the central administrative function. CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 METHOD OF MAINTAINING DISCIPLINE IN KADUNA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT EDUCATION AUTHORITY The term discipline is defined in the Oxford Advanced LearnerÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary (2005) as Ã¢â¬Ëthe practice of training people to obey rules and orders and punishing them if they do not; the controlled behavior or situation that results from this trainingÃ¢â¬â¢. From the above definitionÃ therefore, discipline is the ability to obey rules and others which are formulated and regulated by the constituted authority. The methods of maintaining discipline in the Kaduna North Local Government Education Authority among its employees is categorized into two(2) viz. staff within the range of grade level 01-06 and staff from grade level 07 above The discipline of staff on grade level 01-06 is purely the responsibility of the Local Government education authority and this occur when an employee is alerted of the implications of his/her action and as well informed of the decision of the management ag ainst him or her. Though these disciplinary measures varies from the magnitude of the offence committed. Some offences attracted instant dismissal considering their seriousness. The discipline of staff on grade level 07 and above rests solely on the state universal basic education board. Though the process of administering such discipline starts from the local government education authority by bringing to the attention of the board the type of offence an employee committed and the detailed recommended disciplinary measures due to imposed on the offender. 5.1 THE AIMS OF DISCIPLINE IN KADUNA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT EDUCATION AUTHORITY Discipline is significant in any human or organization like the Local Government Education Authority. It is through enforcement of discipline that peaceful and harmonious conduct of organizational activities are successfully carried out by the personnel that further result in the attainment of the desired goals of the organization. Discipline regulates the conduct of daily activities of the personnel to conform to the laid-down rules and regulations. 5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS i. Releasing the need and importance of offering admission to the youth to undergo this programme, those who are within the range of participating in the National Youth Service Corps assignment, necessary arrangements be put in place to enable them take part in the National Programme at the completion of their educational programmes; ii. In recognition the functions and importance of planning in an organization, the management of the university will dialogue with the government with a view to considering graduates of educational and ministration and planning to serve as educationÃ administrators and planners. iii. Considering the fact that, this programme is purely of education administrators and planners, effort be made to remove teaching practice from the course content and be replaced with industrial attachment. iv. As examinations are uniformly conducted across the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s institution the adoption of uniform implementation of educational polices by the Local Government Education Authorities is paramount. BIBLIOGRAPHY The Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette No.53 (17 Aug.1988) Vol.75. A. Owan Enoh, Becky B.Bamaja and Roy O. J Onwuka (1987); a Handbook of Educational Foundations: Challenge Press, Jos, Nigeria. Fred C. Lunenburg and Allan C. Orstein ; Educational Administration, Concepts and Practices: fifth Edition: Printed in the United States of America.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Vaccines are one of the most unknown topics for people. They inject their body with chemicals without regard to what is going into their body and how it is affecting it. I, also, am guilty of doing this. To remove my ignorance and inform others, I am going to research more on this topic. By writing this paper, I am hoping to shed more light on this unfamiliar concept. My topic will be about the controversy of vaccinations. I am going to research its history, the effect on your body, advantages and disadvantages. I am also interested in the reasons behind not getting vaccinations for your children, even when the parents could be willingly risking their childÃ¢â¬â¢s health and other childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s health. Furthermore, I wonder how doctors and professors view vaccinations and if they believe vaccinating your children is mandatory. 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